WRITER: PATTARAWADEE SAENGMANEE
Kanit Sermsirimongkol, owner of Pata Pinklao Department Store and Zoo. Chanat Katanyu
For several years now, there has been a campaign calling for a better life for Bua Noi, Thailand’s last gorilla. What that better life would look like, however, remains unclear.
Bua Noi has called Pata Zoo in Pata Pinklao Department Store home for more than three decades now. It is fair to say that both the department store and the zoo have seen better days. As a result, there are concerns over the conditions for Bua Noi, as well as her fellow animals.
The Free Gorilla campaign has therefore been advocating that Bua Noi be released into the wild. However, Pata Zoo has always insisted that she could not survive this. There was an apparent breakthrough, however, when the zoo pledged to relocate Bua Noi from her rooftop enclosure to the ground within five years.
The Free Gorilla campaign has been led by animal rights activist Sinjira Apaitan, who in 2013, gathered 35,000 signatures in support of her petition to find a new home for Bua Noi. This year, Sinjira has joined forces with Polish activist Joanna Sobkowicz to launch the website freegorilla.org to raise awareness of Bua Noi’s story and give updates about the campaign.
“Pata Zoo feeds [Bua Noi] very well and provides doctors to monitor her closely,” Sinjira said. “Her physical health might be OK but how about mental health? She is a wild animal. We can’t hear her thoughts but we can see the sadness in her face. She has woken up in the same cage every day [for 32 years] and never seen the outside world. We believe that Bua Noi can live in a cage, but we’d like to educate the younger generation on proper wildlife conservation.
“We’re concerned about Bua Noi’s safety in case of a fire. Recently, a 48-year-old gorilla died in Germany after a fire broke out in the zoo after someone released a paper lantern into the sky. We doubt that Bua Noi would survive a similar situation. Imagine if Bua Noi dies, should children be placing flowers in front of a concrete cage or in a green courtyard? Doesn’t she deserve more dignity?”
Bua Noi was brought to Thailand from Germany as a one-year-old in 1988, and has been kept in her enclosure in the rooftop zoo in Pata Pinklao Department Store ever since. Her mate passed away over a decade ago, so her only companions now are the veterinarians and other animals, including orang-utans, birds, langurs, flamingos and sheep.
“When I saw the article about Bua Noi, I couldn’t believe that this happened in Bangkok,” Sobkowicz said. “Pata isn’t a zoo. It’s a kind of exhibition and that kind of place shouldn’t be legal. It’s really the law that can protect animals from being abused and [prevent] tourists from contributing to animal cruelty without knowing.
“I can see the benefits of zoos. Animals should be implanted with microchips so that we can trace them no matter where they are or control their temperature in case they’re sick. But Pata Zoo doesn’t really think about [the animals]. The owner says how much he spends to feed [Bua Noi], but feeding our animals is a duty. It’s like when we buy a cat or dog. We share 98% of DNA with gorillas, so Bua Noi is very smart and she’s thinking. She has never found the Sun because she has lived internally her whole life.”
Despite the zoo’s pledge, moving Bua Noi to the ground floor and building a new enclosure is far from guaranteed. The cost is estimated to be as much as 50 million baht. In order to fund the project, Pata Zoo needs a partner — difficult to find in the current economic climate. There is an alternative possibility, however; the Aspinall Foundation in the UK has said it is willing to cover all expenses to send Bua Noi to a gorilla sanctuary in Africa. But this is not something that appeals to the zoo’s authorities.
Pata Zoo is the brainchild of Vinai Sermsirimongkol, whose stated aim was to educate Thai children about gorillas and wildlife conservation. The zoo is currently run by Vinai’s younger brother Kanit.
Occupying 200m², Bua Noi’s air-conditioned cage is surrounded with glass walls to protect her from bacterial infections, diseases and noise. There’s no greenery inside, but it’s designed to resemble a cave and is equipped with a television and a giant swing for leisure.
“It’s a difficult task to relocate an ape,” Kanit said. “Just going to Chiang Mai Zoo, we have to give Bua Noi a dose of general anaesthetic, which many leading zoos avoid doing. She risks death while adapting to unfamiliar surroundings.
“An expert suggested how to construct a safe cage for her. The floor is made with concrete to protect her from bacteria that can be found in Southeast Asia. For reference, Singapore Zoo had four gorillas which died of melioidosis in 1983. Two more gorillas were brought to Singapore in 1992. One succumbed to melioidosis and the remaining ape was sent to Europe.”
Living in her enclosure on the 7th floor of the shopping mall, Bua Noi kills time by wallowing on the floor, watching TV or walking around to greet visitors. Every day, she is fed two large meals — each of about 3kg — of bananas, oranges, guava, boiled corn, red grapes, apples and UHT milk.
The zookeepers clean her cave 30 minutes before each feeding time. This also works like an alarm clock, letting Bua Noi know that food is on the way. She sits and watches the door in anticipation.
“Want to send her back to nature? We should think about the animals’ quality of life in the jungle,” Kanit argued. “They are under threat from diseases like Aids and Ebola, as well as civil wars and poachers. We can learn something from the bushfires in Australia that have killed around 500 million animals. We once conducted a fire evacuation drill to demonstrate to the public how we can move all animals to the ground floor within 15 minutes.
Freegorilla.org was launched earlier this year by Sinjira Apaitan, above, and Joanna Sobkowicz, top. Apichart Jinakul
“I won’t send Bua Noi to another country. She’s a treasure of Thais. I never thought to keep her on the rooftop forever but it’s hard to find a partner to invest during slow economic growth. Now, people understand that we are doing our best to take care of Bua Noi. We extend our license every five years and the Department of National Parks, Wildlife and Plant Conservation come to examine our management systems and the standard of animal welfare two or three times a year. If we are doing anything wrong, they can close our zoo at any time.”
Veterinarian Benchapol Lorsunyaluck warns that Bua Noi could be at risk of severe bacterial infection if she is relocated to the ground.
“Bua Noi has lived on that rooftop for 30 years. She has never touched the ground before so she has no immunity. Another point is that the gorillas are often vulnerable to respiratory disease — and Bua Noi has never shared her cage with others.
“I have visited Pata Zoo several times,” said Benchapol, who is director of Panalai Veterinary Hospital, and also initiated the Wild Bird Care Project. “The animal welfare is not bad. It’s not too crowded. People may be more familiar with open zoos, where animals are walled in with electric fences rather than cages. But no one can guarantee that she would be safe in a new home.”
Response to ‘Gorillas in the Mist’ (Bangkok Post Life 03.02.2020) by www.freegorilla.com
The Free Gorilla team would like to thank you for affording us the opportunity to present our case, and speak on behalf of Buanoi. We very much value your support, and were delighted to be given a front page spread. However, we would now appreciate the ‘right to reply’ to several points.
Firstly, the article implied that we are campaigning to release the Gorilla Buanoi into the jungle, which she has no memory of. We would never advocate such a move. Why would we send her ‘out of the frying pan into the fire’! Why put her at the mercy of traffickers for the second time in her life? The article omitted to mention that she was taken from the jungle as a one year old in 1988, and has been kept illegally against the laws enacted in 1975, which prohibit the trafficking of wild animals. Animal activist and journalist, Sinjira Apaitan actually gathered 75,000 signatures to a Petition launched in 2013, and not 35,000 as stated in the article. The total number of signatures now stands at over 110,000 which is testament to the strength of feeling against Pata Zoo and the continued incarceration of Buanoi.
In the article, her owner, Kanit Sermsirimongkol claims that Gorillas can contract human diseases such as Eboli and Aids – such cross-species transmission is scientifically impossible. Khun Kanit also argues that in her natural environment surrounded by vegetation, she may contract a complaint sometimes transmitted to primates by bacteria and insect infested soil, but which in fact is easily treatable. Also her healthy diet and frequent veterinary checks for over 30 years will have ensured that she has a strong immune system well able to fight against disease and incidental bugs. This is no excuse for keeping her in a ‘concrete jungle’ with no sense of the sun on her back and grass beneath her feet.
There are, in fact many success stories of Gorilla being rehabilitated into natural environments. To quote Jane Rasmussen-Dewar of ‘Gorilla Haven’, ‘The soil argument is like saying they might be struck by lightning. There’s always a risk moving gorillas, but considering where Bua Noi is now, anywhere would be better, and while I’m not sure where she’d go, she’s be under the care of a professional zoo.’ Jane Rasmussen-Dewar goes on to cite a few examples, out of many lone gorillas that have been successfully rehabilitated:
- Willie B at Zoo Atlanta where a new exhibit was built for him. At first he was hesitant to go on the grass, but soon figured it out and went on to have kids and live a life with other gorillas , after being housed alone for decades.
- Ivan from Tacoma to Zoo Atlanta. As with Bua Noi he lived in a shopping mall, but went to Zoo Atlanta where, like Willie B he led a family group, although sadly he didn’t have any offspring.
- Timmy relocated from Cleveland to Bronx. Again, he lived in a concrete jungle in Cleveland and moved to a grassy area in Bronx which he never really liked although he did start to sire offspring and lived a good life. “
It’s not enough to say that she wouldn’t survive in the wild. Of course she wouldn’t, and that’s not what we want. Gorillas are highly evolved social animals which thrive in family units – they are not habitual ‘loners’ and are usually pictured in family groups displaying an inordinate amount of sociability which involves vying for their position in the social hierarchy, playing & entertaining one another, loving & cherishing family members. Just because Bua Noi’s a kind of ‘exhibit’ doesn’t mean she doesn’t have the same needs and desires as her wild relations, as we do too, since we share 98% of our DNA with gorillas. Buanoi is an innocent, serving a life sentence through no fault of her own.
Thank you once again, and we look forward to further developments and positive outcomes in this on-going story.